1. Austrian “Papa” Haydn wrote a theme and variation on what would become the German National Anthem.
Please begin listening at 5 minutes in…
2. Martin Luther, leader of the Protestant Reformation, was also a musician and composed this hymn.
3. Mozart moved from Salzburg to Vienna, the city of musicians, to pursue his musical fortune and challenge the rules of patronage. A gifted violinist, virtuoso pianist, and brilliant composer, Mozart’s piano sonatas are delightful.
4. Beethoven’s life is an inspiring testimony to human potential and the determination of a single individual to face adversity and respond with beauty. His 5th symphony is a fantastic demonstration of motivic development.
5. A modern composer, Sergei Prokofiev, created a musical masterpiece based on the literary masterpiece “Romeo and Juliet” by William Shakespeare.
6. Could this be the most famous sonata ever? How did Beethoven change the typical sonata format with this piece?
7. In this Symphony No. 40, Mozart utilizes the FSDF organization of movements, and prominently features Sonata form throughout. Classical Symphony
8. “The Moldau” is a Romantic Program Symphony, which is also referential.
9. Through-composed form is quite rare, but filled with variety.
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10. Please be able to explain and give examples of each of the following:
AAA, AABB, AABA, ABCD, ABACADA, A A1 A2 A3
BONUS—Mouret’s Rondo/Rondeau/Rondeaux as performed by the world famous Canadian Brass.
11. What is basso continuo? Why do you think the addition of the second instrument was helpful? What makes this ‘cello so unusual?
Timbres of Interest
A. The bass clarinet is a larger, deeper clarinet which plays a lower solo than the Bb clarinet solo which follows. Other interesting instruments include the keyboard introduction, a celeste, and an oboe solo. The bass clarinet has a metal bell attached and usually rests on the floor.
B. J. S. Bach played the clavier, harpsichord and organ, but did not care for piano. Harpsichord gives his Well Tempered Clavier a very different sound than does piano.
C. The organ, is known as the “king of instruments”, and sustains pitches by use of air forced through different types of pipes (or by electronic imitation of these sounds). “Pulling out all the stops” may refer to an organist actuating all his pipes. How many keyboards are there?